Arthroscopy (pin hole surgeries) is a surgical procedure doctors use to look at, diagnose, and treat problems inside a joint.Your doctor may recommend it if you have inflammation in a joint, have injured a joint, or have damaged a joint over time. You can have arthroscopy on any joint. Most often, it is done on the knee, shoulder, elbow, ankle, hip, or wrist.
What Happens During the Procedure?
During this procedure, your doctor will insert special pencil-thin instruments through a small cut (incision) the size of a buttonhole. They will use a tool called an arthroscope that has a camera lens and a light. It allows them to see inside the joint. The camera projects an image of the joint onto a screen. The surgeon will fill the joint with sterile fluid to widen it so it is easier to see.They will look inside the joint, diagnose the problem, and decide what type of surgery you need, if any. If you do need surgery, your surgeon will insert special tools through other small incisions called portals. They will use them to cut, shave, grasp, and anchor stitches into bone. There by solving the problem with minimal damage to the surrounding soft tissue and allowing for early rehabilitation.
What are the common arthroscopic procedures done?
1. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is important for maintaining stability of the knee joint, particularly in activities involving, pivoting, weaving, or kicking. The knee becomes unstable with a ruptured ACL and this may injure the underlying cartilage over time speeding up the arthritic process and causing severe damage to the joint.Arthroscopic ACL reconstruction is the surgical treatment of choice to restore stability at the knee joint.
2. Posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction
The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is the largest and strongest ligament in the knee. It has two very distinct portions: one that goes from the back of the shinbone (tibia) to the roof of the femoral notch (in the thigh bone) called the anterolateral bundle, and a second smaller portion that goes to the side of the notch called the posteromedial bundle. Both bundles prevent the knee from slipping backward, especially when it is bent. However, as they have different attachments, they have different primary functions. The anterolateral bundle prevents excessive front-to-back motion of the shin bone (tibia) while the posteromedial bundle prevents excessive rotation of the tibia. Because they have different functions, it is necessary to reconstruct both bundles when the PCL is torn
3. Meniscal repair/balancing
there are teo menisci in the knee joint a medial and a lateral,the two menisci of the knee are crescent-shaped wedges that fill the gap between the tibia and femur. The menisci provide joint stability by creating a cup for the femur to sit in. The outer edges are fairly thick while the inner surfaces are thin. If the menisci were missing, the curved femur would have to move on the flat tibia.
4. Shoulder rotator cuff repair
Rotator cuff muscle are a group of 4 muscles that originate at the scapula and insert themselves onto the greater tuberosity of the humerus. As the name suggests their main function is to internally and externally rotate the arm. They also help in lifting your shoulder and helps in stabilization of the shoulder which is a shallow ball and socket joint.sometimes, the rotator cuff tendons tear or get pinched by the bones around them.An injury, like falling on your arm, can cause this to happen. But wear and tear over time can take its toll on your shoulder, too.